Today while volunteering I was asked to lead a patient through LSVT BIG exercises. 
What is LSVT you may ask?
What started as a voice treatment therapy has expanded into a technique developed specifically to address the unique movement impairments for people with Parkinson disease.
Treatment emphasizes big movements, something unnatural to patients with Parkinson’s who tend to have quiet voices and small gait patterns.
The protocol is both intensive and complex, with many repetitions of core movements that are used in daily living. Training with increased amplitude of limb and body movement (Bigness) in people with Parkinson disease has shown documented improvements in amplitude (trunk rotation/gait) that generalized to improved speed (upper/lower limbs), balance, and quality of life.
Sources:
http://www.lsvtglobal.com/patient-resources/what-is-lsvt-big
http://movingforwardphysicaltherapy.com/

Today while volunteering I was asked to lead a patient through LSVT BIG exercises. 

What is LSVT you may ask?

What started as a voice treatment therapy has expanded into a technique developed specifically to address the unique movement impairments for people with Parkinson disease.

Treatment emphasizes big movements, something unnatural to patients with Parkinson’s who tend to have quiet voices and small gait patterns.

The protocol is both intensive and complex, with many repetitions of core movements that are used in daily living. Training with increased amplitude of limb and body movement (Bigness) in people with Parkinson disease has shown documented improvements in amplitude (trunk rotation/gait) that generalized to improved speed (upper/lower limbs), balance, and quality of life.

Sources:

  1. http://www.lsvtglobal.com/patient-resources/what-is-lsvt-big
  2. http://movingforwardphysicaltherapy.com/
My school thinks it’s funny

My school thinks it’s funny

emberlite reblogged your post and added:

I would but… chemistry class

Make a chemistry song; do a chemistry dance; bake something delicious and test yourself to see what delectable chemical reactions are taking place!

Tags: emberlite

General announcement

Self care is important, seriously, I spent so much of my life treating self care as a luxury and was very unhappy as a result

Go do something fun for yourself, read a book, watch a movie, go buy face paint and convince a friend it’s a great spontaneous activity (just make sure if you buy the cheap stuff you check to see if you’re allergic first, nothing like being stained blue and having an itchy face).

Do for yourself and have no regrets!!

witheart:

Everyone assumes it’s because he’s a bad guy and doesn’t want to look weak, but actually Magneto doesn’t give hugs because it produces MRI results.

(via nomadmedstudent)

loupgarou752:

Anatomical Venus model used to medical science.

loupgarou752:

Anatomical Venus model used to medical science.

(via nomadmedstudent)

beautyofmicroscopy:

Astroglia are star-shaped cells found in the spinal cord and brain, generally responsible for maintaining homeostasis, as well as contributing to healing from traumatic injuries (among other amazing things). 

They’re also beautiful!

All of these are drawn from the Astrocyte article on Wikipedia. For specific info, follow the links attached to each micrograph.

(via neuroecology)

neuromorphogenesis:

Smell Turns Up in Unexpected Places

Smell is one of the oldest human faculties, yet it was one of the last to be understood by scientists. It was not until the early 1990s that biologists first described the inner workings of olfactory receptors — the chemical sensors in our noses — in a discovery that won a Nobel Prize.

Since then, the plot has thickened. Over the last decade or so, scientists have discovered that odor receptors are not solely confined to the nose, but found throughout body — in the liver, the heart, the kidneys and even sperm — where they play a pivotal role in a host of physiological functions.

Now, a team of biologists at Ruhr University Bochum in Germany has found that our skin is bristling with olfactory receptors. “More than 15 of the olfactory receptors that exist in the nose are also found in human skin cells,” said the lead researcher, Dr. Hanns Hatt. Not only that, but exposing one of these receptors (colorfully named OR2AT4) to a synthetic sandalwood odor known as Sandalore sets off a cascade of molecular signals that appears to induce healing in injured tissue.

In a series of human tests, skin abrasions healed 30 percent faster in the presence of Sandalore, a finding the scientists think could lead to cosmetic products for aging skin and to new treatments to promote recovery after physical trauma.

The presence of scent receptors outside the nose may seem odd at first, but as Dr. Hatt and others have observed, odor receptors are among the most evolutionarily ancient chemical sensors in the body, capable of detecting a multitude of compounds, not solely those drifting through the air.

“If you think of olfactory receptors as specialized chemical detectors, instead of as receptors in your nose that detect smell, then it makes a lot of sense for them to be in other places,” said Jennifer Pluznick, an assistant professor of physiology at Johns Hopkins University who in 2009 found that olfactory receptors help control metabolic function and regulate blood pressure in the kidneys of mice.

Think of olfactory receptors as a lock-and-key system, with an odor molecule the key to the receptor’s lock. Only certain molecules fit with certain receptors. When the right molecule comes along and alights on the matching receptor, it sets in motion an elaborate choreography of biochemical reactions. Inside the nose, this culminates in a nerve signal being sent to brain, which we perceive as odor. But the same apparatus can fulfill other biological functions as well.

Dr. Hatt was one of the first scientists to study these functions in detail. In a study published in 2003, he and his colleagues reported that olfactory receptors found inside the testes function as a kind of chemical guidance system that enables sperm cells to find their way toward an unfertilized egg, giving new meaning to the notion of sexual chemistry.

He has since identified olfactory receptors in several other organs, including the liver, heart, lungs, colon and brain. In fact, genetic evidence suggests that nearly every organ in the body contains olfactory receptors.

“I’ve been arguing for the importance of these receptors for years,” said Dr. Hatt, who calls himself an ambassador of smell, and whose favorite aromas are basil, thyme and rosemary. “It was a hard fight.”

But researchers have gradually awakened to the biological importance of these molecular sniffers and the promise they hold for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

In 2009, for instance, Dr. Hatt and his team reported that exposing olfactory receptors in the human prostate to beta-ionone, a primary odor compound in violets and roses, appeared to inhibit the spread of prostate cancer cells by switching off errant genes.

The same year, Grace Pavlath, a biologist at Emory University, published a study on olfactory receptors in skeletal muscles. She found that bathing the receptors in Lyral, a synthetic fragrance redolent of lily of the valley, promoted the regeneration of muscle tissue. Blocking these receptors (by neutralizing the genes that code for them), on the other hand, was found to inhibit muscular regeneration, suggesting that odor receptors are a necessary component of the intricate biochemical signaling system that causes stem cells to morph into muscles cells and replace damaged tissue.

“This was totally unexpected,” Dr. Pavlath said. “When we were doing this, the idea that olfactory receptors were involved in tissue repair was not out there.” No doubt, few scientists ever imagined that a fragrance sold at perfume counters would possess any significant medical benefits.

But it may not be all that surprising. Olfactory receptors are the largest subset of G protein-coupled receptors, a family of proteins, found on the surface of cells, that allow the cells to sense what is going on around them. These receptors are a common target for drugs — 40 percent of all prescription drugs reach cells via GPCRs — and that augurs well for the potential of what might be called scent-based medicine.

But because of the complexity of the olfactory system, this potential may still be a long way off. Humans have about 350 different kinds of olfactory receptors, and that is on the low end for vertebrates. (Mice, and other animals that depend heavily on their sense of smell for finding food and evading predators, have more than 1,000.)

Despite recent advances, scientists have matched just a handful of these receptors to the specific chemical compounds they detect — an effort further complicated by the fact that many scent molecules may activate the same receptor and, conversely, multiple receptors often react to the same scent. Little is still known about what most of these receptors do — or, for that matter, how they ended up scattered throughout the body in the first place.

Nor is it even clear that olfactory receptors have their evolutionary origins in the nose. “They’re called olfactory receptors because we found them in the nose first,” said Yehuda Ben-Shahar, a biologist at Washington University in St. Louis who published a paper this year on olfactory receptors in the human lung, which he found act as a safety switch against poisonous compounds by causing the airways to constrict when we inhale noxious substances. “It’s an open question,” he said, “as to which evolved first.”

(via nizdawg)

scinote:

Tusk, Tusk: New Study Sheds Light on the Purpose of The Narwhal’s Horn

The purpose of a narwhal’s tusk has vexed scientists for centuries. The tusk, which is actually an elongated canine tooth, has had many hypothesized purposes, ranging from use as a weapon against rival males to being used to poke air holes in ice when the sea freezes over.
While both of these behaviors have been observed by narwhals in the wild, these are not necessarily the only purposes for narwhals’ tusks. In a paper published recently in the journal Marine Mammal Science, University of Manitoba researcher Trish C. Kelley provided evidence towards a different purpose for the horny appendage.
Using anatomical data collected from hundreds of narwhals harvested in Inuit subsistence hunts, Kelley and her team were able to find a positive correlation between the mass of a male narwhal’s testes and the size of his horn. Basically, this suggests that if you’re a male narwhal, having a bigger horn means you’re more virile and therefore more attractive to female narwhals. The male narwhals want to be you, and the female narwhals want to be with you*.
While ideas of the horn being used as a sexual signal had been suggested previously, the team’s study was the first to provide solid proof towards this idea, finally placing the narwhal’s horn next to deer antlers and the peacock’s tail as sexually selected status signals that make the girls go crazy.
If you’re interested in reading the original paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mms.12165/abstract
http://animals.io9.com/size-matters-narwhals-with-longer-tusks-have-bigger-te-1637869535
 *As a side note, this research does not suggest that male humans with elongated, sharpened canine teeth are any more attractive to female humans than those without. However, a certain series of books by Stephenie Meyer may suggest otherwise. More research is needed to fully understand this phenomenon.

Submitted by Nick V, Discoverer.
Edited by Carrie K.

scinote:

Tusk, Tusk: New Study Sheds Light on the Purpose of The Narwhal’s Horn

The purpose of a narwhal’s tusk has vexed scientists for centuries. The tusk, which is actually an elongated canine tooth, has had many hypothesized purposes, ranging from use as a weapon against rival males to being used to poke air holes in ice when the sea freezes over.

While both of these behaviors have been observed by narwhals in the wild, these are not necessarily the only purposes for narwhals’ tusks. In a paper published recently in the journal Marine Mammal Science, University of Manitoba researcher Trish C. Kelley provided evidence towards a different purpose for the horny appendage.

Using anatomical data collected from hundreds of narwhals harvested in Inuit subsistence hunts, Kelley and her team were able to find a positive correlation between the mass of a male narwhal’s testes and the size of his horn. Basically, this suggests that if you’re a male narwhal, having a bigger horn means you’re more virile and therefore more attractive to female narwhals. The male narwhals want to be you, and the female narwhals want to be with you*.

While ideas of the horn being used as a sexual signal had been suggested previously, the team’s study was the first to provide solid proof towards this idea, finally placing the narwhal’s horn next to deer antlers and the peacock’s tail as sexually selected status signals that make the girls go crazy.

If you’re interested in reading the original paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mms.12165/abstract

http://animals.io9.com/size-matters-narwhals-with-longer-tusks-have-bigger-te-1637869535


*As a side note, this research does not suggest that male humans with elongated, sharpened canine teeth are any more attractive to female humans than those without. However, a certain series of books by Stephenie Meyer may suggest otherwise. More research is needed to fully understand this phenomenon.

Submitted by Nick V, Discoverer.

Edited by Carrie K.

(via nizdawg)

scinote:

Some Like It Hot: A Look at Capsaiscin

If you’ve ever eaten a chili pepper— either because of a dare or by your own volition— you have no doubt come across the painful burning sensation that comes soon after. But what causes this pain? And why does it exist in the first place? Before we look at chemistry, we have to look at biology— specifically, evolution.
Capsaicin is found naturally in chili peppers, in varying quantities. To truly understand its purpose, we have to look at where it’s located. The amounts of capsaicin vary throughout the plant, but the highest concentrations are found in the placental tissues surrounding the seeds of the plant. This makes sense evolutionarily, as the seeds are the future generations of  these peppers. It makes sense that the plant would use whatever means are most effective to protect its progeny. Capsaicin, with its burning, itching, stinging side effects, acts as a perfect deterrent to possible predators looking for a tasty meal.
Now that we know why capsaicin exists - why does it burn? This is where the chemistry comes in. The burning, painful sensation attributed to capsaicin results from chemical interactions with sensory neurons. When introduced to the body, capsaicin binds to a specific receptor called the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1) or, more simply, the vanilloid receptor subtype 1. This receptor is a subtype of receptors that are present in peripheral sensory neurons. The vanilloid receptor 1 is usually reserved for detecting heat or physical abrasion. When heat is applied to the surface of the skin this TRPV1 ion channel opens, allowing cations (positively charged ions) into the cell. This inflow of cations activates the sensory neuron, which sends signals to the brain that there is a painful stimulus present. Capsaicin has a binding site on the receptor, and opens the cation channel just like if heat were applied. This results in a signal to be brain to alert you of a potential threat and produces a burning sensation where the capsaicin was introduced, but without an actual burn.
Interestingly, while the receptor works this way in most mammals, it is not activated by capsaicin in birds; therefore, birds are the largest distributors of capsaicin seeds in the natural environment.
This has just been a brief overview of some of the chemistry of capsaicin, but hopefully next time you bite into a jalapeno, you’ll take a moment to appreciate the science that’s occurring before you gulp down your milk!
References:
Pingle SC, et al. Capsaicin receptor: TRPV1 a promuscious TRP channel. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 2007.(179):155-71.
Tewksbury JJ. et al. Ecology of a spice: Capsaicin in wild chilies mediates seed retention, dispersal and germination. Ecology. 2008. (89):107-117.

Submitted by thatoneguywithoutamustache
Edited by Ashlee R.

scinote:

Some Like It Hot: A Look at Capsaiscin

If you’ve ever eaten a chili pepper— either because of a dare or by your own volition— you have no doubt come across the painful burning sensation that comes soon after. But what causes this pain? And why does it exist in the first place? Before we look at chemistry, we have to look at biology— specifically, evolution.

Capsaicin is found naturally in chili peppers, in varying quantities. To truly understand its purpose, we have to look at where it’s located. The amounts of capsaicin vary throughout the plant, but the highest concentrations are found in the placental tissues surrounding the seeds of the plant. This makes sense evolutionarily, as the seeds are the future generations of  these peppers. It makes sense that the plant would use whatever means are most effective to protect its progeny. Capsaicin, with its burning, itching, stinging side effects, acts as a perfect deterrent to possible predators looking for a tasty meal.

Now that we know why capsaicin exists - why does it burn? This is where the chemistry comes in. The burning, painful sensation attributed to capsaicin results from chemical interactions with sensory neurons. When introduced to the body, capsaicin binds to a specific receptor called the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1) or, more simply, the vanilloid receptor subtype 1. This receptor is a subtype of receptors that are present in peripheral sensory neurons. The vanilloid receptor 1 is usually reserved for detecting heat or physical abrasion. When heat is applied to the surface of the skin this TRPV1 ion channel opens, allowing cations (positively charged ions) into the cell. This inflow of cations activates the sensory neuron, which sends signals to the brain that there is a painful stimulus present. Capsaicin has a binding site on the receptor, and opens the cation channel just like if heat were applied. This results in a signal to be brain to alert you of a potential threat and produces a burning sensation where the capsaicin was introduced, but without an actual burn.

Interestingly, while the receptor works this way in most mammals, it is not activated by capsaicin in birds; therefore, birds are the largest distributors of capsaicin seeds in the natural environment.

This has just been a brief overview of some of the chemistry of capsaicin, but hopefully next time you bite into a jalapeno, you’ll take a moment to appreciate the science that’s occurring before you gulp down your milk!

References:

Pingle SC, et al. Capsaicin receptor: TRPV1 a promuscious TRP channel. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. 2007.(179):155-71.

Tewksbury JJ. et al. Ecology of a spice: Capsaicin in wild chilies mediates seed retention, dispersal and germination. Ecology. 2008. (89):107-117.

Submitted by 

Edited by Ashlee R.

(via nizdawg)